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Date of publication: 2017-09-02 11:39

Tiberius had hesitated over making a decision about the succession, although within the imperial family there were three possible candidates: Tiberius Gemellus, Gaius and Claudius. Tacitus said that 8775 Tiberius feared that to nominate a successor outside the imperial house might bring contempt and humiliation upon Augustus 8767 memory 8776 . (Tacitus)

Etienne De La Boetie: Discourse on Voluntary Servitude (1548)

Tiberius, who remained at Capri until his death in AD 8 7 at the age of seventy-eight, continued to administer the empire through dispatches but often hesitated in making important decisions, and the senate became even more dependent on him.

Aelius Donatus, Life of Virgil

Tiberius did try at first to check the abuse of the law of treason by insisting that trials be fair and technically legal later in his reign, as actual conspiracies against him increased and Sejanus played on his suspicions, the number of treason cases grew. After the death of Sejanus prosecutions against his friends continued for a year, but there were never the wholesale executions suggested by Tacitus, and his statement that 8775 at Rome the massacre was continuous 8776 (T)(limitation of Tacitus not the case) is exaggerated. Tacitus actually recorded numerous deaths during this period, but some were from natural causes or were executions for other offences, while many were suicides.

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He was anxious to retain worthy men in the senate, and if any had fallen on hard times he was inclined to help them financially as in the case of Celer, to whom he awarded one million sesterces. He would not, however, assist those senators whose poverty was due to their own extravagance. He objected strongly when a nobleman, Marcus Hortensius, who had been given one million sesterces by Augustus to marry and have a family, asked for assistance from the floor of the senate.

Whether Gaius seriously considered invading Britain or not, his army refused to make the crossing he announced its annexation even though no military action had been taken. Refer to Suetonius, Gaius, 98-8.

Wherever we go in Europe we eagerly inhale the aromas wafting from kitchens. Our mouths water at the variety of local foods. We mentally debate which items to order on the various menus. Truth to tell, when we're in Europe we rarely think about calorie counts. We have a weakness for Europe’s crusty breads, aromatic cheeses, and incredible, old-world vines and traditional brews.

8775 Such frantic and reckless behaviour roused murderous thoughts in certain minds... when two Guards colonels put their heads together and succeeded in killing him... On 79 January... Caligula, seated in the Theatre, could not make up his mind whether to rise for luncheon... his friends persuaded him to come out with them along a covered walk... some say that Chaerea came up behind Caligula as he stood talking... And with a cry of ‘Take this!’ gave him a deep sword-wound in the neck, whereupon Gaius Sabinus, the other colonel, stabbed him in the breast. 8776

Vespasian was a new kind of Roman emperor: middle-class rather than patrician, and a man with wide experience in the provinces and the army, rather than a mere urban courtier. He gave the empire a period of stable and efficient government after the disturbances of the year 69. His tolerance and humour won him friends, and his conscientious attention to the welfare of Rome and the provinces set the empire on a new and firmer footing. The pity is we lack many details about the chronology and events of the reign. On the other hand, the testimony of Tacitus and Suetonius does afford us an image of the man himself, an able and determined individual who ended his days maintaining that the emperor should die on his feet.

An incident which further increased Sejanus 8767 power over Tiberius occurred at this time: Tiberius, Sejanus and a number of servants were dining in a natural cavern when a rock-fall threatened the emperor 8767 s life and, it is said, Sejanus protected Tiberius from the falling boulders. From that time, 8766 Tiberius believed him disinterested and listened trustingly to his advice, however disastrous 8767 . (Tacitus)

In Parthia, the Romans sought to maintain their authority with minimal military effort. Gaius reversed Augustan policy towards Parthia, enabling it to regain its influence in Armenia.

When it appeared that Tiberius was dying, Macro organised the sending of messages to provincial governors and generals and was supposed to have helped Gaius to hasten the death of Tiberius by ordering him to be smothered. Tiberius died in March AD 87, when seventy-eight.

Under Tiberius the senate became the chief criminal court, particularly for treason trials. In theory it retained wide powers over the provinces and the State Treasury, and had increased administrative duties.

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